There is no sparkling taste and bubble in the primitive champagne. Even the father of champagne was not the exact inventor.
說到香檳酒（英語：Champagne；法語：vin de Champagne），就要從法國的香檳產區開始談起。香檳地區位於法國東北部，中世紀屬於香檳伯爵的領地，自古就是交通要道和貿易樞紐，是多條水路與陸路的匯集點：往東通往德國，往西通往西班牙；往南是義大利和地中海地區，往北則是法蘭德斯（比利時北部）和北海。12至14世紀由於十字軍東征的影響，香檳地區的貿易愈加興盛，於是「香檳市集」（法語：Foires de Champagne）誕生，成為歐洲當時最重要的商業中心之一。釀酒業也在此時蓬勃發展，帶動了香檳地區葡萄酒的生產力，並開始向周圍地區傳播。
When it comes to Champagne (Which means Vin de Champagne in French), it shall start from the production area of Champagne in France. The region is in the northeastern part of France, which belonged to the territory of the Counts of Champagne in the Middle Ages. It has been a major transportation junction and commercial center since ancient times. To the south are Italy and the Mediterranean region, and to the north are Flanders (northern Belgium) and the North Sea. From the 12th to the 14th century, due to the influence of the Crusades, the trade in the Champagne region became more and more prosperous, so the "Champagne Market" (Which means Foires de Champagne in French) was born and thus became one of the most significant trading centers in Europe at that time. The winemaking industry also flourished at this time, driving the productivity of the wines of the Champagne region, and beginning to spread to the surrounding areas.
There is a saying that champagne was invented by the British. Can it be truly believed?
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People may think that why should talk about the production area first rather than the champagne itself? It is because that Europeans pay special attention to terroir, a key factor that often determines the flavor of the wine through the climate and soil. Burgundy (Which means Bourgogne in French), a place that is adjacent to the Champagne region, has produced high-quality red wine from a very early time. Due to the cold weather in the north, the wines produced in the Champagne region were not able to make themselves famous. The wine was either too acidic or too sweet. When it comes to champagne, it is often believed that it was invented by the father of champagne: Dom Pérignon. In fact, this is such a big misunderstanding! He did make plenty of improvements to the wines, but only at the stage of still wine (no sparkling). The open-minded business management strategy of the Duke of Champagne, as well as the continuous improvement of the cultivation and production of grapes by wine farmers and friars, enabled the quality of wine produced in the region to be comparable to other French wines in the 13th century. At the peak of European commercial trade, it successfully brought confidence to the region and competed against the others (especially Burgundy, which they care about most).
香檳酒真正的發明者，是英國的物理學家克里斯多福‧梅雷特（Christopher Merret），他在已經過一次發酵的葡萄酒中額外加入糖份，產生了第二次發酵，並將這個「香檳製作法」的紀錄成果於1662年獻給英國皇家學院。而在法國，氣泡酒是在偶然中誕生的：1531年在南法的利穆區（Limoux），有釀酒師將還沒發酵完成的葡萄酒直接裝瓶，而讓酒中的葡萄酒繼續產生氣泡。至今法國南部一帶（如利穆）仍有遵循這種古法釀製的氣泡酒：對酒不進行除渣，酒中仍含有酵母殘渣，酒味也通常較甜。而由於瓶中過大的氣壓時常使瓶身爆裂，因此氣泡酒又有「魔鬼酒」（vin du diable）的稱號。一直要到19世紀後期，法國的香檳區才使用梅雷特的香檳製作法（二次發酵法）來釀製葡萄酒，並大量生產，至今已成為家喻戶曉的葡萄酒酒款。
The real inventor of champagne was a British physicist named Christopher Merret, who added extra sugar to the wine that had been fermented once, resulting in a second fermentation. He later dedicated the record of the Champagne Method to the British Royal Academy in 1662. Besides, in France, sparkling wine was born by accident in 1531. In the Limoux region of southern France, a winemaker bottled the wine that had not yet been fermented, while the wine continued to bubble, and accidentally created the first sparkling champagne in France. Nowadays, sparkling wines are still made according to this ancient method in southern France, such as Limoux. People here don`t often remove dregs, so it still contains yeast residue, and it usually makes wine sweeter. Moreover, because the excessive air pressure in the bottle often causes it to burst, sparkling wine is also known as "Vin du Diable" which means the wine of the devil. It was not until the late 19th century that the Champagne region of France used Meret's Champagne method (secondary fermentation) to brew wine and mass-produced it, and now it has become a well-known wine around the world.
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香檳和氣泡酒（英語：Sparkling wine；法語：Vin effervescent）又有何不同？原來為了遏止酒商從其他地區引進低價劣質酒濫竽充數，法國於1892年由最高法院頒布法令，「香檳酒」這個名稱只能使用在採摘和釀製過程都在香檳區完成的葡萄酒。因此，「香檳酒」就擁有產區和風土的概念，而與其它的「白葡萄氣泡酒」有了區別：它是在特定地區釀製的葡萄酒，而且產酒的品質與它的土壤特色及釀造技術密切相關；而法國其他產區使用香檳法製成的氣泡酒，則稱為「克雷芒」（Cremant）。
What is the difference between champagne and sparkling wine (Which means Vin Effervescent in French)? It turned out that in order to prevent wine merchants from importing low-priced and inferior wine from other regions, the Supreme Court of France issued a decree in 1892. The name "champagne" can only be used for wines that are picked and brewed in the Champagne region. Therefore, "Champagne" has the special concept of the production area and the terroir, which makes it different from other "white grape sparkling wine". it is a wine produced in a specific area, and the quality of the wine is related to the feature of soil and brewing technology; while the sparkling wine made by the champagne method in other regions of France is called "Cremant".
The Three Sisters of Champagne: Chardonnay, le Pinot Noir, and Pinot Meunier.
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The grape varieties used in champagne also have certain specifications (legal varieties). Most champagne today usually uses Chardonnay, le Pinot Noir, and Pinot Meunier to blend. Chardonnay presents an elegant taste, Pinot Noir balances the overall structure and brings fruity aromas, while Pinot Meunier imparts more floral and fruity aromas to the champagne. The perfect blend of the three makes the French champagne unique.
Chardonnay originated in Burgundy, France, and has now spread all over the world, having the title of "Queen of Grapes". It has become an important ingredient in all kinds of sparkling wines, not only in the Champagne region of France but in sparkling wine from Italy(known as Franciacorta in Italian) as well. It is medium in flavor, but can widely depend on climate, soil, and types of oak. Chablis from France has a mineral taste, while lots of Chardonnays from the new world own special tropical fruit flavor.
黑皮諾（le Pinot noir，或簡稱le Pinot，又稱「黑比諾」、「黑品樂」）是原產於法國東北部的紅葡萄，其中又以勃根地的黑皮諾品質最高，為世人津津樂道，而不僅是黑皮諾的紅酒頗具盛名，它也是香檳酒和氣泡酒的主角之一。黑皮諾因為皮薄而容易受傷，加上對環境特別挑剔，因此需要細心呵護，是量少單價又高的嬌貴品種。但是黑皮諾略帶酸味的香氣，以及櫻桃、草莓和覆盆子的果香，柔和而淡雅，口感和眾多紅葡萄比起來清爽細緻而不澀，單寧也較柔順，因此適合釀製成香檳來飲用。
Le Pinot noir, also known as Pinot Noir, or le Pinot for short, is a red grape originating in northeastern France, among which Pinot Noir from Burgundy has the highest quality that people dwell upon with great relish the most. Not only is the red wine of Pinot Noir so popular, but it is also one of the protagonists of champagne and sparkling wine. Pinot Noir can easily get injured because of its thin skin, and particularly, it has a high demand in the environment, so it usually offers extra care, and these reasons make it become a delicate variety with a small quantity and a high unit price. On the other hand, the slightly sour flavor, as well as the fruity aroma of cherries, strawberries, and raspberries, make it soft and elegant. Compared with many red grapes, the taste of it is more refreshing, delicate, and not astringent, and the tannins are softer, so it is often to be brewed into champagne to drink.
Pinot Meunier, also known as "Meunier", or "Black Riesling", or Schwarzriesling, is also a well-known red grape variety. It also belongs to the "Pinot family" as well. Compared with Pinot Noir, it has similar sweetness and alcohol concentration, but lighter color, higher acidity, and less tannin. Meunier means "mill" in French, named after the grape leaves of Pinot Meunier with white hairs as small as flour. With aromas of apple, banana, blackcurrant, cherry, and plum, the fruity taste is softer and is round, and smooth. It brings more affinity to champagne, and its strong pairing ability is also due to its unique fragrance.
The queen of wine pairing: The pairing of food and Champagne.
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Champagne is fantastic as an aperitif. Appropriate sour taste has the function of promoting appetite. If wondering what to drink with snacks and cold dishes, it can be a perfect choice. Bubbles can also add a romantic atmosphere to the opening of the banquet. For the couple who would like to celebrate their wedding anniversary, a glass of champagne can warm up the venue and remind them of the sweet time when they first met.
Champagne is also versatile for wine pairing. The one with less sweet, dry, and smoother tannins can go with white meats such as seafood, chicken, or light appetizers; For the one that tastes like red wine, with heavy tannins and high acidity, can be paired with red meats such as beef, mutton, and pork or strong-tasting meals. The accurate temperature can bring out the charming aroma and excellent taste of champagne. The one that maintains between 7 and 12 degrees Celsius after chilling can perfect inspire champagne`s flavor.
Select a bottle of champagne you love, even nobles have their own leisure time, let the bubbles and aroma of champagne accompany you for an afternoon. Choose a book, and spend an intellectual and elegant moment of happiness.